You’re Doing it Wrong: Diving Ponta do Ouro

You’re Doing it Wrong: Diving Ponta do Ouro

AD007

I remember my first dive in Mozambique. The site was called Playground, off of Ponta Mamoli, and the dive lasted just over twenty minutes. The reef looked like a bunch of boulders strewn over sand and through my chattering teeth, I couldn’t grasp what the big deal was. This was supposed to be a great dive site.

Text and Images by Clare Keating-Daly

That was back in 2009. I was diving within the newly declared Ponta do Ouro Partial Marine Reserve (PPMR) that stretched from the border with South Africa north into Maputo Bay. My sorry 3mm excuse of a wetsuit didn’t stand a chance against the late winter water temperatures.

Before coming to Mozambique, I’d been teaching diving in Southeast Asia, Thailand and the Philippines, and travelling to dive in Indonesia and Malaysia. Before that, I’d done my dive master training in Honduras. Not counting the sites affected by dynamite fishing, the reefs in Southeast Asia were stunning – they looked like something out of a glossy travel magazine. The crystalline waters of the Caribbean were taken straight from a tropical daydream. Divers, myself included, thought they were wonderful because of this, because we’d been taught what reefs are supposed to look like.

AD029

Five years ago, on my first dive in Mozambique, I wasn’t impressed because the reef didn’t look like my idea of a classic reef. Where were the colonies of branching coral? Where were the layers of plate coral, and domes of brain coral? And what was with the water temperature? Where was my stereotypical reef? But today, the reefs of Southern Mozambique are, in my mind, some of the best in the world.

So what changed? Anyone can dive a tropical coral reef – they’re basically fool proof and you’re bound to be impressed. But it takes a little more finesse to dive sub-tropical reefs. In short, I was doing it wrong. Once I changed the way I dived (and got a 5mm wetsuit), I never wanted my dives to end; I learned how to dive the reefs of Ponta. In doing so, I have had some of the most remarkable dives of my life.

AD022

If you’ve dived anywhere in the PPMR, that is, in the bays of Ponta do Ouro, Ponta Malongane, Ponta Mamoli, Ponta Techobanine or north, you’ve dived some world class sites. But you probably already know that. If you disagree, or if you’ve never dived the PPMR, maybe you need a little insider knowledge before your next trip.

In this two part series, we’ll start with five open water dives (18m and shallower) this issue and five advanced dives (+20m) in the first issue next year. Yes, we’re going against the rules of diving and doing the shallower dives first. Of the shallower dives, four are in Ponta bay and one is in Malongane bay. While there are some spectacular dives further north (Playground off of Mamoli being one of them) we’re sticking to the reefs you can reasonably request most dive operators to take you to. Diving reefs further north often takes a bit more organising. So, without further ado, here we go.

AD009

Crèche
Ponta do Ouro, 10-12 metres
The story here is that Crèche is known for its abundance and variety of juvenile fishes here, that is, many species of sub-adult fish. However, you’re just as likely to see juvenile fishes on one healthy reef as another, which means there must be something else drawing divers back to this shallow reef again and again. Crèche is a favourite spot for new divers; a patchy reef with plenty of sand means that student divers or divers that haven’t blown bubbles for a while can settle, adjust their buoyancy, relax and generally stay off the reef. When relaxed, you use less air and at this depth, using less air means you could be in for a very long dive – the no decompression limit at 12m is 147 minutes! And, juvenile fishes aside, there is plenty to see on this reef. For me, the best part of Crèche is the cryptic stonefish (Synanceia verrucosa) found on the reef. It takes a trained eye to spot these masters of disguise, even if they’re right out in the open. Not to be confused with false stonefish or scorpionfish, these guys are the real deal. They can reach up to 40cm but are more typically around 27cm. But don’t get too caught up looking only at the reef. Dolphins often swim along this shallow line of reef, cruising in to investigate divers. Crèche is also known for its schools of crescent-tail bigeye and as a treasure trove of masks and snorkels dropped by student divers.

AD008

Dive it right: Don’t touch the reef! Although they’re not common, there are stonefish on this reef. Stonefish are the most venomous fish in the world, not the best thing to run into on a dive holiday.

AD033

Blacks
Ponta do Ouro, 15-18m
Take a look at your hand. Spread your fingers out. See that? That’s what Black’s is like, only bigger, about 40 metres wide. The main reef, your palm, bulges up from the sand punctured with little overhangs and covered with corals, some sea grass and sponges. From that about five thin fingers trail off in a southerly direction. While its possible to craft some good wide angle shots on Blacks, it’s structure and primary residents are better suited for macro photography. Be ready to get up close and personal with this reef, scouring it for the small stuff: frogfish, sea moths, long nosed pipefish, Durban dancing shrimp, paperfish, feather star shrimp. But don’t forget to keep an eye out for the scattered shrimp cleaning stations and cheeky black cheek moray eels. Because this small reef is surrounded by sand, it generally isn’t at its peak in large swell and in heavy current you’re quickly swept off of it.

AD032

Dive it right: Take your time on this dive – it’s a small site but holds countless cryptic and camouflaged species. But be careful where you stick your nose, black cheek moray eels are notorious for biting divers on this reef. If you put a finger or two down to steady yourself, always look then look again!

AD011

Doodles
Ponta do Ouro, 16-18m
Doodles may be the ‘house reef’ for Ponta do Ouro, it’s less than ten minutes from the boat launch, but it’s one of the greatest dives in the area. It acts as a sort of oasis in Ponta Bay with a diverse range of fish. Patrolled by resident potato bass, it runs about 200 metres long and on average it is about 20 metres wide. Close to the northern section of the reef is a cave system that is generally the hub of activity. This area is great for wide-angle photography. Don’t forget to check out the sand patches. Potato bass and at least four species of ray mosey around the sand near the cave area and easily photographed if approached cautiously. All of Doodles is well worth your bottom time. The usual algal reef suspects can all be found here, but Doodles often surprises with unexpected visitors like a weedy scorpionfish (Rhinopias frondosa), the odd thorny seahorse, thistle cowries, as well as numerous species of nudibranch – a macro photographer’s dream.

AD001

Dive it right: Never pass up the opportunity to dive Doodles, even if you’ve feel like you’ve squeezed everything you can from it. You never know what you’re going to find on this reef, it can change day to day. Don’t get stuck looking down, manta rays, yellowfin tuna, bull sharks, whale sharks and other nomadic species are often spotted here.

AD027

Drop Zone
Malongane Bay, 10-16m
There are some spectacular reefs in Malongane Bay and Drop Zone is one of them. This site, like some of the deeper sites in Malongane Bay that we’ll cover in the next issue, has some serious structure. Pitted with potholes and with gullies galore, the topography of this reef is stunning and a great option for those days when the current is cranking – the reef seems to never end. If you’re debating between macro and wide angle equipment for this dive, start with the wide angle. With schools of bluefin trevallies patrolling the ledges, potato bass lurking in backlit overhangs, and numerous cleaning stations with rubber lips queuing for service, there’s a lot of big picture kind of action on Drop Zone. But on that second dive, because you’ll have to come back, shoot macro. I’ve counted fourteen different species of nudibranch on this site – look close, it’s definitely possible to beat my record with all the Halgerda species slugging along. The leopard blenny are particularly friendly here as well.

AD017AD018

Dive it right: Something about Drop Zone makes it a hot spot for green turtles. They’re frequently sighted here, sleeping in a crevice, feeding on the algae and seaweed or dropping in for a shell deep clean from schools of butterfly fish fluttering for a snack. All sea turtles are endangered species, making the treat of seeing one that much more special.

AD010

Steps
Ponta do Ouro Bay, 14-16m
Like the other reefs in Ponta Bay, Steps is patchy reef. The step-like ledges that give this reef its name hide reams of paperfish and their more cryptic cousins, frogfish. Camouflaged crocodile fish tend to hang out on the sandy inshore side of this reef, their mesmerising eyes certainly seeing you before you see them. For macro photography, scan the whip coral for tiny whip goby. Watch for busybody mantis shrimp clearing out their burrows and distressed damselfish defending their nests. Schools of larger reef fish congregate around the central cave area of this site and make great photography subjects. The topography around this area is also very rewarding for wide-angle enthusiasts. And be sure to check the sandy offshore areas of this reef. Giant guitar sharks are often, albeit briefly, spotted here. The length of Steps along with its north-south orientation makes it the place to dive when the current is cranking in either direction. On days like this, be sure to ask your divemaster if it’s possible to foray over to Steve’s Ledge, Steps’ southerly neighbour and another excellent dive site in the bay.

AD028

Dive it right: Just because Steps is a long reef, doesn’t mean you need to try to cover it all in one dive. With all these reefs, you’ll get the most out of them if you take your time, but with all of Steps’ ledges and pockets, you’ll likely be rewarded for looking a little closer rather than trying to cover more ground.

The reefs in the PPMR don’t look like the reefs out of your average glossy travel magazine. On first glance, you may be disappointed. I was. But now that you have the insider information necessary to make your next Ponta dives your best Ponta dives, I bet you’ll start to see things a bit differently.

In the next issue, we’ll go deeper with five more PPMR dive sites. Check back here for insider knowledge on Pinnacles, Atlantis, Aquarium, Three Sisters and Kev’s Ledge all accompanied by plenty more on site pictures to whet your diving appetite.

AD021AD006AD019
AD016AD003AD024

The wreck of Rio Sainas

The wreck of Rio Sainas

MG_0510

In the early hours of 11 March 2013 the, 35 meter, 300 ton fishing vessel “Rio Sainas” made her final journey to the bottom of the sea. She was under tow after spending nearly 3 weeks on the shore at Zavora, Mozambique; the result of losing power and drifting in a high wind before running aground on the sandy beach. Fortunately for her crew and for the environment, she ran aground on sand, right between two rock reefs. Had she hit the reef the crew would have been in real trouble considering the state of the sea and her fuel and oil may well have leaked out of a damaged hull, posing a considerable pollution risk for the area.

Text by Jon Wright

MG_9807

Initial attempts to re-float her by her owners proved futile and she was declared a total loss by their insurance company.The salvage company Subtech were called in and they began the arduous task of cleaning her up so she would not pose any threat to the environment. Over the course of 10 days more than 35 tons of fuel and oils were pumped off and several tons of debris was removed before she was deemed fit to be towed out to sea. It took several attempts to free her, each pull from the large tugboat resulting in small gains, with the salvers having to wait patiently until the next high tide to try again. Working day and night in foul weather they finally won the battle on the afternoon of 10 March, freeing the stricken vessel in 20 knot winds and 3 meter swells.

As she had run aground bow first, she was being pulled from the stern with the plan being to relocate the massive hawser to the bow for towing away from Zavora. However sea conditions had deteriorated so much, it was not possible to launch the small boat needed to carry out this operation and the tug and tow had to sit it out at anchor in the bay. The next morning, we awoke to a much calmer sea, but with only one boat floating on it. We can only assume the tired old ship was taking a lot of water over her stern in the heavy sea and her not very watertight hatches were unable to cope. At some stage during the pitch black, stormy night, she slipped beneath the waves.

Zavora-005MG_0542

In the short time she has been on the bottom she has already become an aggregation point for many species of fish, including several sightings of a 2 meter brindle bass which we are hoping will be a long term resident. Juvenile fish of various species are finding a home here and we often see trevally, cuda and other game fish hunting around her. A vessel which, during 40 years of operational service, killed so many marine organisms is now sheltering and nurturing these same animals providing a new habitat for life in Zavora.Their loss became our advantage; now the Rio Sainas is Mozambique’s newest wreck and at only 9km from our launch, it’s on our doorstep. Lying in 33 meters of water, with a 35 degree list to starboard and coming up to 19 meters she is a perfect dive site for recreational divers. The scour by the propeller goes down to 35 meters and there is plenty of scope for penetration for the more experienced diver. It is possible to enter the aft deck hatch, proceed through the pristine (but not so spacious) engine room and exit by the galley one deck up. From there, you can enter the crew accommodation, proceed up one deck and into the wheelhouse.

MG_9809DSC8134MG_0491

Rio Sainas was engaged in deep sea lobster potting at the time of her grounding but had previously been involved with long lining – divers’ most detested fishing practice (the crew told us they had been shark finning at one time). She was under a Mozambican flag, crewed mainly by Filipino’s and owned and operated by Pescamar, which itself is owned by a Spanish fishing conglomerate. She had 3 FADM (Mozambique armed forces) personnel on board and was armed with 3 AK47’s and a PKM machine gun, the mount of which is still clearly visible, (to the rear of the superstructure on the starboard side) to act as protection from possible pirate attack.

So, one down, so many to go! While we can be happy that there is one less fishing boat in the channel, we must also do our part. Knowing that the food we eat comes from sustainable resources, and does not involve the exploitation of less fortunate people is the least we can do ethically. For our own health, we must also take a stand against current industrial food production practices such as the over-use of pesticides, hormones and the increasing dominance of genetically modified ‘Frankenfoods’. Eventually, we consumers call the shots. If we stop buying fish from the red list, it will not be economically viable to catch it. What is needed is a common consensus, we only have power in numbers. The future of the sea and indeed, the land, is in our hands.

MG_0533

One less fishing boat plying its trade in the channel means the oceans get a break, albeit until the next one comes along. And as the aging fishing fleet sinks and becomes home to ocean life it means fishing companies are forced to reconsider their options and economics. For divers, it’s a bonanza – something to explore, something to attract fish life and something to be marveled at.

Zavora is home to two marvelous diving wrecks – the Klipfontein and now, Rio Sainas. A fortunate intersection of shipping misfortune meets ocean life to create a diver’s dream dive.

Malaria prevention and prophylaxis

Malaria prevention and prophylaxis

AdobeStock_23489585

DAN receives many inquiries from members regarding malaria. Indeed malaria has become an increasing problem due to drug resistance. As divers venture deeper into the African tropics they incur increasing risk of contracting malaria. Lack of medical facilities, transportation and communication add additional complexity to managing this medical emergency.

Three DAN members have required evacuation by air over the last three years due to malaria. Understanding malaria prophylaxis and general preventative measures is therefore of the utmost importance. The following section covers the most important considerations in selecting and using malaria prophylactic measures and medications. The treatment of malaria, which is complex and requires close medical supervision, falls outside the scope of this document.

The three commandments of malaria prevention and survival are:
1. Do not get bitten
2. Seek immediate medical attention if you suspect malaria
3. Take “the pill” (anti-malaria tablets/propftylaxis)

Do not get bitten

  • Stay indoors from dusk to dawn
  • If you have to be outside between dusk and dawn – cover up: long sleeves, trousers, socks, shoes (90% of mosquito bites occur below the knee)
  • Apply DEET containing insect-repellent to all exposed areas of skin, repeat four-hourly
  • Sleep in mosquito-proof accommodation: Air-conditioned, proper mosquito gauze, buildings/tents treated with pyrethrum-based insect repellent/insecticide
  • Burn mosquito coils/mats
  • Sleep under an insecticide impregnated (Permacote®/Peripel®) mosquito net (very effective)

Seek immediate medical attention if you suspect malaria

  • Any flu-like illness starting 7 days or more after entering a malaria endemic area is malaria until proven otherwise
  • The diagnosis is made on a blood smear or with an ICT finger prick test
  • One negative smear/ICT does NOT exclude the diagnosis (repeat smear/ICT diagnosis is made, another illness is diagnosed or the patient recovers spontaneously – i.e. from ordinary influenza)

Take “the pill”

There are several dangerous myths regarding malaria prophylaxis:

  • Prophylaxis does not make the diagnosis more difficult
  • It does protect against the development of cerebral malaria
  • Is not 100% effective – hence the importance of avoiding bites
  • Not all anti-malaria medication is safe for diving
  • Malaria is often fatal – making prophylaxis justified
  • Anti-malaria drugs, like all drugs, have potential side-effects, but the majority of side-effects decrease with time
  • Serious side-effects are rare and can be avoided by careful selection of a tablet or combination of tablets to suit your requirements (Country, region and season)

The following drugs are available for the prevention of malaria:

Doxycycline (Vibramycin® or Cyclido or Doryx®)

Used extensively in the prevention of Chloroquine resistant malaria. About 99% effective. Not officially recommended for use in excess of 8 weeks for malaria prevention, but it has been used for as long as three years with no reported adverse side effects. Offers simultaneous protection against tick-bite fever.

Dosage: 100mg after a meal daily starting 1 to 2 days before exposure until 4 weeks after exposure. Doxycycline should be taken with plenty of non-alcholic liquid.

Side effects: nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, allergy, photosensitisation. May cause vaginal thrush infections and reduces the efficacy of oral contraceptives.

Use in pregnancy: unsafe (as is scuba diving). Also, avoid during breast feeding and in children younger than 8 years of age.

Doxycycline is DAN’s first choice recommendation for divers in areas with choloquine resistance/”resistant malaria”.

Chloroquine (Nivaquine ® or Daramal ® or Plasmaquine ®):

Contains only chloroquine. Must be taken in combination with Proguanil (Paludrine ®)

Dosage: 2 tablets weekly starting one week before exposure until 4 weeks after leaving the endemic area Contra-indications: known allergy, epilepsy

Side effects: headache, nausea & vomiting, diarrhoea, rashes, may cause photosensitivity (sunburn – prevention, apply sun block)

Use in pregnancy: safe (note scuba diving is not considered safe during pregnancy)

Proguanil (Paludrine®)

Must be taken in combination with chloroquine (Nivaquine® or Daramal® or Plasmaquine®) Dosage: 2 tablets every day starting one week prior to exposure until 4 weeks after

Contra-indications: known allergy to Proguanil. Interactions with Warfarin (an anti-coagulant incompatible with diving)

Side-effects: heartburn (tip: take after a meal, with a glass of water and do not lie down shortly after taking Proguanil) mouth ulcers (tip: take folic acid tablets 5mg per day if this occurs) loose stools (self-limiting – no treatment required)

Use in pregnancy: safe but must be taken with folic acid supplement. 5mg per day (note scuba diving is not considered safe during pregnancy)

The combination of chloroquine & Proguanil is about 65% effective falciparum malaria. Although not a first choice, its relative safety and limited side effects may justify its use in certain individuals.

Atovaquone / Proguanil (Malarone ® ; Malanil ®)

Registered in South African as a causal prophylaxis in February 2004. Safety in diving has not been established. Preliminary data suggests it may be safe for pilot and divers.

Effective against Malaria isolates that are resistant to other drugs.

Controlled studies have shown a 98% overall efficacy of Atovaquone / Proguanil in the prevention of P. falciparum malaria

Dosage: 1 Tablet daily for adults, starting 24 – 48 hours prior to arrival in endemic area, during exposure in endemic areas and for 7 days after leaving the endemic area only.

Dose should be taken at the same time each day with food or a milky drink.

Contra-indications: Known allergy to Proguanil or Atovaquone or renal impairment (i.e., significant renal disease is likely to be incompatible with diving). Safety in children < 11kg has not been established.

Side-effects: Heartburn (Tip: Take after a meal, with a glass of water & do not lie down shortly after taking Proguanil); mouth ulcers. To date Atovaquone has been well tolerated and the most common adverse reaction being headache.

Use in Pregnancy: Safety in pregnancy and lactating women has not been established. (Note: SCUBA diving is not considered safe during pregnancy)

The safety of Malanil has not been confirmed in diving. Accordingly, even though preliminary data suggests that it may be safe, we are not able to recommend it. Doxycycline remains the first choice for divers diving in Africa where there is resistance to chloroquine.

Mefloquine (Lariam® or Mefliam®)

About 90% effective Dosage: one tablet per week.

Side effects: may cause drowsiness, vertigo, joint aches and interfere with fine motor co- ordination (making it difficult to exclude DCI in some cases)

Pregnancy: probably safe in early pregnancy and may be used with confidence after the first trimester of pregnancy. May be used in breast feeding and babies weighing more than 5kg.

Mefloquine is considered unsafe for divers and pilots. It is contra-indicated in epilepsy but us a good first choice for other travellers

Pyrimethamine/Dapasone (Maloprim® or Deltaprim®/Malzone®)

No longer regarded as effective but still recommended in Zimbabwe

Sulfadoxine and Pyrimethamine (Fansidar®)

No longer used as a prophylactic.

Quinine (Lennon-Quinine Sulphate®)

Not used for prophylaxis but is the backbone in the treatment of moderate and severe malaria. Serious side-effects are not uncommon during treatment.

Arthemeter (Cotexin®)

fte “Chinese drug”. Available in some areas of Africa. Not for prophylaxis. Used in combination with other drugs in the treatment of mild to moderate malaria.

Halofantrine (Halfan)

Not used for prophylaxis and best avoided for treatment.

Recommended malaria drug prophylaxis in DAN Southern African region (Africa and Indian Ocean islands)

malaria

* In situations where the risk of contracting malaria is low, (e.g. in cities, air conditioned hotel or when rainfall has been low, etc.) the traveller may be advised to take no drug prophylaxis but stand-by treatment mus t be carried unless medical care is readily available. Personal protection against bites must be adhered to at ALL TIMES.

# high risk people include babies and children under 5 years, pregnant woman, elderly people (and greater than 65 years), people with suppressed immunity (e.g. diabeties, etc)

Notes:

  1. The above mentioned recommendations were compiled from material supplied by the National Department of Health and Worldwide Travel Medical Consultants.Prohpylaxis significantly reduces the incidence of malaria and slows the onset of serious symptoms of malaria
  2. All anti-malaria drugs excluding Mefloquine are considered compatible with diving
  3. Like with all other medications, anti-malaria drugs should be tried and tested on land well in advance
  4. If unpleasant side-effects occur, please consult your diving doctor
  5. Whether or not you take prophylaxis, be paranoid about malerial Malaria can presrnt in many ways varying from fever or diarrhoea to flu-like symptoms. Always inform your doctor that you have been in a malaria area. Symptoms can start within 7 to 14 days from first exposure until 30 days (and rarely even months) after leaving a malaria area.
  6. No single medication is 100% effective and barrier mechanisms (personal protection against bites e.g. mosquito repellents, nets, protective clothing, not going outdoors from dusk to dawn) must be
  7. Any strange symptom occurring during or within 6 weeks of leaving a malaria area should be regarded with suspicion and requires medical

If you think that you may have malaria or are concerned about unexplained symptoms after visiting a malaria area, contact DAN immediately on 0800 020111 or +27(0)11 242 0112.

Frans J Cronjé, MBChB(Pret), BSc(Hons) Aerosp Med
Albie De Frey, MBChB(Pret)
Hermie C Britz, MBChB(Pret), BSc(Hons) Aerosp Med

error: Content is protected !!