Image: Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin named Bo with one of her calves in the Ponta do Ouro Partial Marine Reserve.
Ponta do Ouro, Mozambique – The first official dedicated marine mammal operators meeting took place at the Ponta do Ouro Partial Marine Reserve (PPMR) offices on the 6th October 2017.
The meeting was requested and presented by Miguel Goncalves – the newly appointed warden of the Maputo Special Reserve and Ponta do Ouro Partial Marine Reserve. Vincent Matsimbe was present as second in command and will be operators go to man for issues arising within the marine mammal/megafauna tourism sector.
The meeting was attended by representatives of The White Pearl, Malongane Dive Camp, (Somente Aqua) Dolphin Centre and Dolphin Encountours Research Center – the four official permit holders between Ponta do Ouro and Mamoli.
Marine Mammal tourism has grown exponentially over the past two decades and as new research emerges we are discovering that activities designed to get tourists close to dolphins and whales do indeed have a large negative impact. A booming ocean safari trade, fishing charters and boats together with fishing jetskis (personal powered water craft) means its busy seas for the local bottlenose dolphins and marine mammals living in and frequenting the reserve’s waters.
Mozambican biologist Diana Rocha has been monitoring the local dolphins since 2010 and looked at data collected between 2006/12. She identified 46 females with offspring over 6 calving seasons. The 2009/10 season saw a 38.9% mortality rate with predation, natural causes and human impact being listed as probable culprits. Pods with newborns were found to be larger than those without and change of direction increased on approach of the boat, indicating disturbance.
A major concern is that during the summer months of December and January the local dolphins calve. This coincides with the busiest time of the year making dolphins frequenting the area vulnerable to disturbance by increased boat traffic, noise pollution and harassment. On a good weather day commercial dolphin swim operators and ocean safari tours start at sunrise and run throughout the day. If we take the two dedicated dolphin centers in Ponta do Ouro, as well as the water-sports and adventure centers in Mamoli and Malongane, we can safely say that the dolphins will be afforded little rest or quiet time during the busy times.
It is now clear that the amount of operators is too many and that the recommendations of one permit holder per 20km made by Dr Almeida Guissamulo from the Museu de Historia Natural, Maputo should have been considered when concerns were submitted to governmental departments before the reserve was proclaimed.
It is within the Reserves Mandate to protect the local dolphins who live in the coastal shallows of the Lubumbo Transfrontier Conservation Area and they have requested operators who have a vested interest in the well being of the local dolphins to urgently address the problems and come up with solutions.
The harsh truth lies in the consequence of operators not making a plan. With discussions from a complete ban, as is the case in South Africa to the concessioning out of one operator per permitted area, operators will have to look at reducing the amount of time spent with dolphins; the amount of in-water attempts; rest time in between visits; creating further sanctuary zone’s and implementing stricter controls for in-water encounters.
In July of this year the World Whale Conference & Whale Heritage Sites (WHS) Summit in Durban was represented by Mozambique with owner-operators Ilha Blue Island Safaris from Ilha de Moçambique and Dolphin Encountours Research Center from Ponta do Ouro. The 5 day conference/summit was arranged by the World Cetacean Alliance (WCA) and followed the theme of working towards sustainable tourism for cetaceans [dolphins and whales] and whale heritage site initiatives. In a survey undertaken by WCA, thirty three area’s of interest in twenty two countries were surveyed as possible whale heritage sites, most individual replies listed locations in South Africa, with Mozambique receiving the highest nomination. With both populations of wild dolphins and humpback whales that navigate these waters from June to December every year, the Ponta do Ouro Partial Marine Reserve is of great importance for the protection of these species.
A second meeting has been agreed upon by Marine Mammal Operators before presenting solutions to the reserve.
If you would like more information please contact:
One of the most fascinating things about my work with the wild #dolphinsofponta is being able to create a safe space were humans are able to observe this special species in their own environment.
Over the past couple of years I have filmed numerous events of a vocalisation I called tok, toking….Popping, a term coined by Richard C. Connor and Rachel A. Smolker in theirarticle entitled ‘Pop’ goes the Dolphin, is of of those vocalisations that normally stops me mid swim! It’s done by the big boys and is sometimes followed by aggressive behaviours such as mock charges and open jaws!
In the coastal shallows of Shark Bay W.Australia three adult males were observed between 1987-88 in the company of one single female at a time. Over the period the female was seen to turn in towards the males and the authors concluded that popping is a threat vocalisation telling the female to stay close.
The series of low frequency pulse sounds are very distinctive and always accompanied by a series of bubbles. Through our in-water recordings in the Ponta do Ouro Partial Marine Reserve in Mozambique we are able to associate the popping with the bubbles and the individuals – and guess what – they are all males too!
Since 2008 we have recorded some 30 events of popping. Interestingly enough though, most of our events included large nursery pods with adult male escorts. It seems that popping is also used on this side of the globe to keep the girls together.
On the 27th September I filmed an event with RemmyBoy and two other same age males together with a juvenile male who were in pursuit of Maria a young female. It did look like the young boy was getting a lesson in popping and herding – with Maria being the consort this time! The adult males however this time slowed for a bit of circle swimming and conscious interaction with me before heading off in pursuit of Maria once more.
The #dolphinsofponta are part of a longterm monitoring project that was started in 1997 by DolphinCareAfrica; the research & conservation arm of the Dolphin Encountours Research Center in Ponta do Ouro, Mozambique.
Reference: Connor, Richard & Smolker, Rachel. (1996). ‘Pop’ Goes the Dolphin: a Vocalization Male Bottlenose Dolphins Produce During Consortships. Behaviour. 133. 643-662. 10.1163/156853996X00404.
One of my first memories of dolphins was as a child, Conservation standing with my Granny on the veranda of her holiday home in Ramsgate, southern KwaZulu Natal. She had spotted dolphins frolicking in the waves and was jumping up and down in excitement shrieking with joy each time one of the sleek, silvery-grey, torpedo-like creatures cleared the waves.
Text and images by Angie Gullan – Founder Dolphin Encountours in support of DolphinCare.Org
This joy is often relived now with guests I take to meet the Dolphins of Ponta.
Later on in life I was to learn that dolphins were revered amongst ancient civilizations and to ‘swim with dolphins’ ranked top on bucket lists. I discovered that dolphins are highly intelligent and are, in essence, persons. I learned that they are befriend-able and if approached in the right way, with the right attitude, these sentient beings would never cease to amaze.
The coastal waters off the east African seaboard are home to populations of semi resident Indo-Pacific, inshore bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus). These gregarious dolphins are different from their larger and more robust oceanic counterparts Tursiops truncates, the common bottlenose dolphin, in that they freckle on their bellies and have a longer and more slender beak.
The Dolphins of Ponta are one such population. Some 250 individuals live within a complex cross border network which traverses the towering ‘duned’ coastline and surrounding reef structures that makes up the Ponta Partial Marine Reserve in Mozambique and bordering the World Heritage site of iSimangaliso in South Africa.
Ponta do Ouro is home to the country’s first dedicated dolphin interaction and research project that was developed in the mid 90’s under the auspices of Dolphin Encountours. With the guidance of both scientific and spiritual advisers the special inwater program was developed to fund ongoing research through taking like-minded tourists to encounter dolphins in their natural environment.
The eco-tourism project served the growing need of people seeking to swim with dolphins as well as the need to assess the populations of marine mammals that frequented the area.
Priority number one was to create a safe space for human-dolphin encounters to take place and through the specially developed Dolphincare code of conduct this was made possible. Standard operating procedures were developed which included comprehensive pre-encounter briefings, snorkelling instructions and the collection of baseline data by means of a database that was compiled in collaboration with various institutes, mainly the Natural History Museum of the University Eduardo Mondalane in Maputo. As time passed we learned from the dolphins and were better able to understand, anticipate and distinguish different behaviours and postures, which offered a form of communication between them and us.
This understanding has led to some profound encounters with the Dolphins of Ponta. Some of these encounters leave one in a state of absolute bliss, finding both human and dolphin engaging in what seems to be a time of just being together.
If the situation arises a bout of seaweed interaction may take place and some energetic circle swimming will be had with people the individual dolphins know. They have been observed chasing sharks away from human swimmers and individuals have shown us the art of hunting and eating red-fang trigger fish. Mums and calves are observed in private time together where specific behaviours are taught and if something unusual happens to be in the area, the inquisitive dolphins will venture off to inspect, often leading us to wonderful sightings hidden down below.
Sadly the encounters sometimes leave us with a heavy heart as we realize and see first hand the impact human beings have on our finned friends. Mozambique’s pot of gold lies not only in tourism but in gas and oil exploration and industrial coastal development which will have adverse long term effects on marine mammals. Coastal tourism in Mozambique is growing exponentially and as its famed underwater kingdoms and fishing hotspots become accessible, more and more encounters with humans and their vessels are inevitable.
During the early 2000’s I was out guiding a dolphin session when we located two dolphins, one known to me as Spin. Spin was a young dolphin that enjoyed engaging with us. She was always the first on the bow and the first to initiate a circle swim.
On this day though, things were amiss. As the boat approached her, distressed vocalizing was heard and as I slipped into the water I could see why; the little dolphin was wrapped up in fishing line! I slowly unwrapped her, but found no way to remove the very large hook, which was by now deeply embedded in her belly. This was the last time I saw little Spin.
The DolphinCare.Org’s database comprises thousands of images, observational records, sound recordings and video recordings of semiresident dolphins and other marine mammals that frequent the area. Individual dolphins have their own files where relevant events are recorded with some of the individuals first being observed in the area when the project was in its pilot stage. Dolphin Encountours, the German Dolphin Conservation Society and volunteers primarily fund the project.
For more information on encountering the Dolphins of Ponta or finding out about how you can get involved and help the project please visit:
A new ‘unique’ diving experience is now available in Seychelles as Alphonse Island makes its debut into the luxury travel sector, offering guests experiences that can’t be found anywhere else in Seychelles.
The island, known as one of the best fly fishing destinations in the world, has made significant modifications to appeal to the lucrative luxury diving travel market. One of these modifications is the opening of a brand new dive centre.
The islands feature exceptional turtle sightings with very healthy breeding populations covering both atolls. Divers can expect huge schools of Bluelined Snapper, Humpback Snapper, Bigeye Trevally and even Batfish to join them on their diving experience.
The reefs are still untouched, pristine and teeming with activity with many species of Moray, as well as small macro such as nudibranchs and shrimp species. Divers will be able to marvel at dramatic drop off walls covered in forests of gorgonian sea fans, while the plateaus feature a high percentage of hard coral cover. Drift dives are common with reef hooks used for divers to stay in the right spot.
Have you always dreamed of swimming with dolphins? These beautiful creatures often grace divers with their presence on the excursions. But, the activity doesn’t stop there: the islands’ Giant and Bluefin Trevally populations are very healthy with a ‘wolf pack’ often attacking reef fish with nurse sharks. Also Hammerhead, Silvertip, Bull Shark and Grey Reef sharks can often be seen during the dives.
Courses offered at the new dive centre include the full PADI suite from Open Water to Divemaster as well as the ‘Discover Scuba’ Diving course. All the courses are focussed around underwater appreciation and conservation. Later this year, the dive centre will also start featuring Nitrox dives as well as the opportunity to go on an overnight trip to the far South of the Seychelles.
Besides the diving centre, the island also has a great number of other ‘unique’ experiences on offer. The Alphonse Group of Islands comprising St Francois, Bijoutier and Alphonse islands, are considered the most remote, pristine and unspoilt group of islands in the Seychelles. Travellers will be able to embark on nature conservation walks to the uninhabited islands of Bijoutier and St Francois. They’ll be able to have a unique experience by overnighting on A’Manni – a Catamaran yacht in the St Francoise lagoon, or discover the expansive flats surrounding the Alphonse atolls as well as participate in conservation-related activities.
“We are offering something exceptional. In today’s travel industry, people want more than a private plunge pool and butler. They want to explore, discover and create memories that will last a lifetime and that’s exactly what Alphonse Island offers,” says Keith Rose Innes, Managing Director of Alphonse Island.
Alphonse Island taps into the ‘Real Seychelles’ where everything is still raw, flawless and untouched, says also Amanda Lang, Marketing Manager Alphonse Island. “Alphonse Island is not just another Island resort; it is a destination where the real luxury lies in the experience.”
Even though the real luxury of the island is expressed in the uniqueness of the experiences on offer, the island has also heavily invested in the upgrading of its facilities. All twenty-one Beach Bungalows and five spacious Beach Suites on the island have been extensively refurbished to create a more ‘barefoot luxury’ feel with new colours and new furnishings. Also the beach bar and the restaurant have been entirely revamped.
It feels like every time we go onto any social media platform there is always some form of reminder that our oceans are warming up, being polluted with an array of horrific substances or that our marine life is dwindling.
It feels too easy to watch something then move onto the next post and before long it’s time to get back to our daily grind.
The Paddle Out For Sharks was started in 2012 to stop just that – the lack of action! Divers, anglers and surfers came together to raise awareness of the damage bather protection gill nets do to shark populations along the south African coast line, to engage with authorities around reducing the impact of these nets and to work with the local community in finding solutions to the use of gill nets locally. The first event focussed on tiger sharks and other marine life that had been caught in the bather protection gill nets at Scottburgh. The response was overwhelming; with footage featuring on the SABC news and local wildlife show 50/50.
In 2013, another Paddle Out for Sharks was held to protest damaging shark fishing practices being conducted at Protea Banks – a shark diving hotspot in South Africa.
The underlying philosophy of the Paddle Out for Sharks is that local communities should take responsibility for practices taking place at their back door, so to speak
Since 2012, The Paddle Out for Sharks has drawn much support in highlighting the plight of Sharks. This support comes from all over southern Africa and internationally too. Paddle Out events have been held in Australia, Mozambique, Germany, Reunion to name a few. .
The Paddle Out for Sharks has always had a grass-roots ethos. In keeping with this, the organisers of previous Paddle Out for Sharks events are calling on communities to organise their own Paddle Out for Sharks that is relevant and focussed on their community.
“It’s time to highlight the fact that the health and wellbeing of our oceans and sharks affects everyone – not just those who live at the ocean or those who fish, surf or dive. The challenge is that everyone do something that will highlight and improve the plight of our Oceans and Sharks, no matter how small the effort. No matter where you are based, it’s to take back control! Stop relying on proposed laws, hopes or empty promises that things are going to improve – it’s time to knuckle down and become an activist. Organise a local clean up, post something on social media, get your neighbours involved, your school, your church or your local community – do ANYTHING but do something!!!!”
Here’s the organisers’ challenge to you.
“Send us your pictures and your videos with the #takebackcontrol featured in them and let’s take a stand this 4th of June 2016! #takebackcontrol”
The fifth annual Paddle Out for Sharks conservation platform, connecting humans with the oceans, will this year be held in conjunction with the international Silence of the Sharks underwater protest being held at Scottburgh (Aliwal Shoal) and Shelly Beach (Protea Banks) on the KwaZulu-Natal South Coast on Saturday, 4 June.
Endorsed by UGU South Coast Tourism, the Silence of the Sharks and Paddle Out for Sharks initiatives will also celebrate World Oceans Day on 8 June, centred around the theme of ‘healthy oceans, healthy planet’.
“The ocean serves a number of vital purposes, regulating temperature, providing life-giving oxygen and a home to an incredible array of wildlife,” explained Justin Mackrory, CEO: South Coast Tourism. “To ensure the health of all future generations, we need to ensure that our oceans are protected.”
Mackrory said residents on the South Coast are made aware, on a daily basis, of the beauty of the ocean and the need for its preservation.
“We have some of the best big animal diving in the world,” he explained. “Aliwal Shoal has been named one of the world’s top 10 dive sites and Protea Banks attracts thousands of international divers every year. These initiatives coincide with the proposed expansion of the Marine Protected Areas at these two dive sites on the KZN south coast and play an important part in keeping awareness about our oceans alive and encouraging people to become proactive in the protection of sharks and marine life.”
Paddle Out for Sharks, which was first held at Aliwal Shoal in 2011, is supported by the surfing community, conservationists, anglers, divers, paddle skiers, scientists and environmentally-concerned individuals. Following the surfing tradition of ‘paddling out’ in memory of a fallen surfer, the event echoes that spiritual element, highlighting the plight of sharks.
“The Paddle Out for Sharks is proud to cooperate on our fifth annual paddle out in 2016, with Silence of the Sharks at the south coast venues. As a grassroots movement that aims to raise awareness of the plight of sharks, we see a synergy with Silence of the Sharks, who are also trying to provide a ‘voice for sharks’,” commented Amanda Barratt, Paddle Out for Sharks Organiser.
The same sentiment flows through the Silence of the Sharks protest which started with a Red Sea dive in December 2015 where about 100 divers went to a depth of 20 metres for half an hour in protest of the mass disappearance of sharks. The dive will be emulated at various locations across the globe, with South Africa’s single event taking place on the KwaZulu-Natal South Coast, set to be the biggest underwater demonstration ever held in South Africa. The initiative will end on 23 October 2016 with a dive in Cyprus.
According to David Pilosof, underwater photographer and diver who has been leading the Silence of the Sharks initiative since 1972, the number of blacktip reef sharks has dwindled by 93 percent worldwide, the number of tiger sharks has decreased by 97% and bull sharks by 99%. Every year, 70 million sharks or more are hunted globally, particularly in the Far East, although the European Union and United States have not made shark fishing illegal.
Sharks have roamed the oceans for 400 million years and are understood to be linked to the health of all our oceans. Despite this, the decimation of sharks for shark fin soup, with some sharks finned while alive and then thrown back into the ocean to drown, continues. Many sport fishermen also target large sharks, effectively removing slow reproducing animals, vital to all conservation, merely for trophies.
Internationally renowned marine videographer, Mark Addison, who hails from the South Coast and will be participating in the event, said: “The greatest threat to sharks on our coast is ourselves, in all of our destructive incantations. It is truly sad. I am of the opinion that the opportunity for debate and timeous intervention has truly passed but the time for action is always now and within each and every one of us.”
Addison’s daughter, Ella, herself an experienced scuba diver, will also be participating in the event along with a number of like-minded school friends.
The Silence of the Sharks protest forms part of South Coast Tourism’s Sardine Season campaign which includes a number of family-focused events. The annual Sardine Run along the KwaZulu-Natal coastline, dubbed ‘the greatest shoal on earth’ is one of the most significant natural migration phenomena globally.
The day’s events will start at 8am with the Paddle Out for Sharks participants gathering at back line off Scottburgh Beach where flowers will be laid. Thereafter, the Silence of the Sharks participants will be invited to jump off the boats and form a group in the water holding banners. Following a countdown, the divers will descend one to two metres with the banners. Scuba divers will then descend with the banners to a 10 meters depth.
For all ocean lovers and shark advocates wanting to get involved in this impactful campaign but not wanting to get wet, there will be land-based activities at both Scottburgh and Shelly Beach/St Mike’s (Protea Banks). The Harley Owners Group (HOGS) Durban Chapter will also be joining in the demonstration by riding from Durban to Scottburgh, gathering at the tidal pool on Scottburgh Main Beach which will provide the perfect viewing point to watch proceedings. Shark Scientist Jessica Escobar will be giving a talk to the crowds that gather, explaining the event and the plight of sharks. Everyone is welcome to attend and encouraged to bring deck chairs, binoculars and flowers.
When you arrive at the Seychelles International airport on Mahe you can spot a GVI volunteer from a mile off. In amongst the Louis Vuitton matching suitcases, and the Ralph Lauren polo shirts, a backpack stuffed to bursting point, often with a pair of diving fins strapped to the outside, causes them to stand out from the usual Seychelles crowd. Best known as a destination for honeymooning couples including members of the British Royal Family, the Seychelles is not your typical volunteer destination.
Text and images by Christophe Mason-Parker
The Seychelles is an archipelago made up of 115 islands scattered like jewels across the western Indian Ocean. The inner granitic islands are covered in lush vegetation and sit on top of the Mahe Plateau; home to the majority of the population of 90,000 people. The warm, shallow waters of the plateau are perfect for coral growth and numerous coral reefs, home to an impressive diversity of marine life, surround the tiny islands that rise up from the seabed.
The main industries in the Seychelles are fishing and tourism, with both relying heavily on the support of a healthy marine environment. In 1998, unusually high sea temperatures caused by an El Niño Southern Oscillation event led to widespread coral bleaching. Reefs were decimated throughout the tropics and the Seychelles was no exception. Within the inner islands, coral mortality in certain areas reached as high as 90%.
Following the bleaching event the Shoals of Capricorn Marine Programme, with funding by the Royal Geographic Society, began monitoring reef regeneration as part of a three-year programme. This was then taken over by Reefcare International as part of the Seychelles Marine Ecosystem Management Program (SEYMEMP).
In 2004 Global Vision International (GVI), under the invitation of the Seychelles National Parks Authority, began monitoring the coral reefs of northwest Mahe and almost ten years later they continue to collect critical data on reef health.
GVI is a social enterprise that runs conservation and community development programmes in numerous locations around the world. Whether it is Healthcare Projects in Nepal, Wildlife Research in South Africa or Community Development in Costa Rica, GVI has been making a real difference by sending volunteers into the field since 1998.
Aside from the backpacks and an obvious interest in conservation, stereotyping a GVI volunteer is not so easy. From gap year students and university graduates, to professionals and pensioners, volunteers come from all walks of life and from every conceivable part of the globe. Each has a different reason for joining, but all leave having given a little of their time and having made a significant contribution towards protecting the organisms that inhabit these fragile shores.
The expeditions are broken down into four-week blocks, with volunteers arriving for either four, eight or twelve weeks at a time. The main focus of the programme is coral reef monitoring and volunteers are allocated either fish or coral to study prior to arrival in the field. The species lists are extensive and have been developed in conjunction with the Seychelles National Parks Authority to cover those organisms that are frequently observed on the reefs, are commercially valuable or act as indicators of reef health.
Located on the northwest coast of Mahe Island and sandwiched between Cap Matoopa and the Morne Seychellois National Park is the Cap Ternay marine expedition base. Situated adjacent to the Baie Ternay Marine Park it is the ideal location for training in survey techniques and provides quick and easy access to the coral reefs of northwest Mahe.
Upon arriving in the field, GVI volunteers immediately undergo an intensive science training programme, specifically designed to teach species identification and monitoring methodologies. On completion of computer and in-water tests and after a suitable amount of practice they are then able to commence monitoring the coral reefs. Accuracy is paramount and only volunteers who have successfully passed these tests are allowed to collect data.
In 2004 Global Vision International, under the invitation of the Seychelles National Parks Authority, began monitoring the coral reefs of northwest Mahe and almost ten years later they continue to collect critical data on reef health.
In 2010 GVI opened its second expedition base in the Seychelles. Curieuse is the fifth largest of the inner islands and along with its surrounding waters was designated as a national park back in 1979. Initially the GVI expedition was to replicate the marine monitoring being undertaken on Mahe. However, since 2011 attention has shifted towards monitoring the terrestrial flora and fauna that inhabits the island.
The GVI Curieuse Island Research Base is located at Anse Jose overlooking Praslin Island. The ruins of a former leper colony have been developed over the years by GVI staff and volunteers and today provide an excellent example of a working research base. Photovoltaic panels provide the expedition’s energy needs, while a comprehensive rainwater harvesting system assists with the collection of water.
Curieuse along with neighbouring Praslin Island is home to the endemic Coco de Mer palm (Lodoicea maldivica). Its Latin name derives from when Maldivians used to find the nuts washed up on their shores and believed they came from submarine trees. A slow growing palm, the Coco de Mer has the largest seed in the plant kingdom.
The nuts are an iconic symbol within the Seychelles appearing on everything from postcards and t-shirts to company logos. Their resemblance to the female private part has in the past led to its use as an aphrodisiac and today they are highly sought after.
The nuts are traded under license and are valued between $200-$300 each. Their high value means poaching is a real issue and due to their slow growth rate and limited distribution could have severe implications for the future of the species. GVI volunteers alongside the SNPA are in the process of conducting the first complete census of the Coco de Mer trees on Curieuse Island.
The Giant Aldabra Tortoise (Aldabrachelys gigantea) was once found throughout the Seychelles islands. Today the last remaining wild population exists on Aldabra, where 100,000 of these giants roam upon the coral atoll. Between 1978 and 1982 almost 300 Giant Tortoises were translocated from Aldabra to Curieuse Island as part of a conservation programme designed to safeguard the future of the species. Thirty years later and GVI is assisting the Seychelles National Parks Authority to conduct a census of the Curieuse Island population. Passive Integrated Transmitters are injected into the tortoises near the base of the tail. These tags act as barcodes and when scanned provide unique information about the tortoise.
From September through to April much of the research on Curieuse Island focuses on nesting turtles. Hawksbill and Green turtles nest within the Seychelles, though Hawksbill turtles tend to favour the inner islands. They are currently listed on the IUCN Red List as ‘Crtitically Endangered’ with global populations having crashed by over 80% in recent years.
In the Seychelles prior to 1994 huge numbers of nesting females were taken from most islands each season. Though the trade in tortoise shell is now illegal, and on the decrease, the species continues to face many threats to its existence. Entanglements in fishing nets, destruction of nesting grounds, and predation of eggs by feral animals, have all contributed toward a continuing decline in population numbers. Today the Seychelles is home to the largest remaining Hawksbill nesting population in the Western Indian Ocean.
During nesting season GVI staff and volunteers, alongside national park rangers walk up and down the beaches of Curieuse Island, searching for turtle tracks. Assisted by the Hawksbill’s tendency to nest during daylight hours in this part of the world, when the teams encounter a turtle they wait for her to start laying before approaching to record vital information.
Aside from the scientific monitoring programmes, a large part of the work GVI Seychelles undertakes focuses on community involvement and capacity building. The National Scholarship Programme is free to all Seychellois over the age of 18 with an interest in conservation. Applicants can take part in either the marine or terrestrial expeditions and gain valuable practical field experience. To date GVI has trained several park rangers and university students in species identification and scientific monitoring techniques.
The idea of spending two months living in remote conditions with a group of people you barely know is not to everyone’s liking. The days are long and hard, the accommodation is often basic and access to the trappings of modern day life is extremely limited. Yet volunteering offers something that you won’t get from your traditional vacation. There is the opportunity to make lifelong friendships with like-minded people, to get up close to nature in a way that you would never have thought possible, and the ability to make a real difference towards protecting the natural environment and improving the lives of those people who depend upon it for their livelihoods.
For many, volunteering is a life-changing experience, providing them with a new direction in life or an alternative insight into how they view the world. As our lives become ever busier, driven by mobile technology and our 24-hour lifestyles, many of us have forgotten what it is like to connect with nature. Our planet is facing increasing threats from climate change, overpopulation, pollution and dwindling resources, so it is good to know that there are people out there who still care enough to want to make a difference.
The Seychelles has an enviable record of looking after its environment with much of the land and surrounding waters designated as national parks. Small-scale conservation projects such as the one run by GVI in conjunction with the Seychelles National Parks Authority can go a long way towards protecting biodiversity, educating communities and conserving the environment for future generations.
For more information on GVI’s projects in the Seychelles and around the globe, visit: http://www.gvi.co.uk/
On the back of a successful Paddle Out for Sharks held in 2012, more than 130 shark conservationists, divers, anglers, and paddlers marked World Oceans Day 2013 by ‘paddling out’ to the shark nets at Scottburgh Beach, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa to highlight the plight of sharks in Southern Africa and demonstrate our collective concern for the way sharks are treated and perceived. We were joined on the beach by members of the public who share our vision.
Text by Amanda Barratt
ThePaddle Out for Sharks is founded on a crucial spiritual element of surfer culture – paddle outs are traditionally held in memory of a surfer who has died. Part of why I was drawn to the concept of the event was because paddle outs are a demonstration of the seamless connection between beach user and the sea, a philosophy that I believe is essential to flipping dominant assumptions about sharks, and hopefully problematizing our relationship with the sea’s natural predators. I believe that common sense understandings of sharks and a lack of respect for the natural world has put shark populations in danger, and that beach users, especially the participants of the paddle out, having had different experiences and understandings of sharks, must be mobilized to be proactive in attempting to challenge assumptions about these animals.
Sharks have roamed our oceans for 400 million years, but have been decimated by up to 90% in some parts of the world. They are a clade of animals that has been demonstrated to be related to the health of our oceans, and the killing of sharks is often given little attention, as the public so poorly perceives them. Millions of sharks fall victim to the long net of industrialised fishing, as they are killed for their fins, to feed the demand for shark fin soup, with many fisheries practising the undoubtedly inhumane practice of finning of live sharks that are then thrown back into the ocean to drown. The demand for fins has also resulted in many small-scale and artisanal fishermen feeding the market, in order to make a living as industrial fishing has destroyed many of their local fisheries.
Large sharks are also popular targets for sport fishermen who see sharks as fair game. While many fishermen engage in safe and responsible practices, many predatory sharks are fished purely as trophies, in effect removing slow reproducing animals that are vital to the conservation of lower trophic levels.
Another problematic practice is the implementation of gill nets that are installed with the purpose of protecting beach users. Their operation misunderstood, the nets, which run the length of popular beaches in KwaZulu-Natal as one example, systematically reduce shark numbers in the netted areas, while impacting on the marine life in the netted areas and beyond.
The above examples of the fundamental human relationship with sharks reflects the mark we leave on our planet and our oceans, and it is the Paddle Out’s philosophy, that our behaviour should be challenged.
Editor of African Diver Magazine, Cormac McCreesh, summed it up perfectly, when he stated,
‘we have it within ourselves to rise above everything, to be human and humane. Our oceans and seas are the last remaining wildernesses. It’s never too late to start to look after what we have and the way we think of, and treat, sharks tells us something about how we treat our oceans.’
Paddle Out For Sharks is reaching far, and looks to gain support for its philosophy, from like-minded people, and the public. The momentum that Paddle out envisages riding on, is an energy where we take back our custodial duties of our planet, and engage and interact with the public, challenging assumptions and demonstrating our collective passion for sharks and our marine environment.
Paddle Out for Sharksfocus is to challenge malignant discourses about sharks, encourage discussion that enables sustainable fishing, and we are firm that pressure for legislative changes need to come from the public, who must be proactive about the conservation of our planet.
Thus Paddle Out For Sharks is working to afford more value to the life of a shark, than a dead shark, by engaging the public and beach users, to educate them about the many different values of sharks, which we see as economic, cultural and effective, in the hope that we may challenge assumptions about sharks, and ultimately lobby authorities and law makers for the preservation of sharks in South Africa.